The prescription form of IGF-1 most often injected is “mecasermin”, which goes by the trade name Increlex. Manufactured using recombinant DNA technology, mecasermin is clinically used to treat IGF-1 deficiency and stunted growth. It is also prescribed to patients who have developed antibody resistance to normal growth hormone therapy. Increlex is actually identical to natural IGF-1, meaning that it has the identical 70 amino acid sequence of IGF-1 that the body produces. In other words, it’s not some kind of growth hormone “precursor”. It’s just straight up IGF-1.
This particular peptide offers therapeutic benefits similar to those of hGH. CJC 1295 is a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analogue. In other words, it is a molecule that serves the same purpose as does GHRH—the hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary to release hGH. However, unlike GHRH, which has a half-life of only minutes after IV administration, CJC 1295 is able to remain active in the body for extended periods due to its ability to bind to a protein in the blood known as albumin and avoid degradation by various enzymes. CJC 1295 increases an important growth factor, IGF-1, in addition to hGH, leading to fat loss, lean muscle growth, and enhanced sleep.
 Blocked growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion and absence of the synergic action of GHRP-6 plus GH-releasing hormone in patients with hypothalamopituitary disconnection: evidence that GHRP-6 main action is exerted at the hypothalamic level. V Popovic, S Damjanovic, D Micic, M Djurovic, C Dieguez, and F F Casanueva. JCEM 1995 80: 942-7; doi:10.1210/jc.80.3.942.
The scheduling of paracetamol and caffeine when combined in a compound analgesic as the only active ingredients was again reviewed by the NDPSC at its 57th Meeting in October 2009 after the Committee had received a request to reconsider the scheduling on the grounds of potential toxicity if used in excess. This issue had been extensively reviewed at the June 2007 meeting and it was decided that Schedule 2 remained appropriate.
Hypertrophic scarring is a form of abnormal, exuberant healing, locally aggressive, and recurrent cutaneous fibroproliferative condition, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation during the cutaneous healing process. Including keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTS), these aberrant processes lead to esthetically disfiguring scars, patients’ psychological stress, and functional impairment . The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of these raised dermal scars are poorly understood. Recent whole genome profiling and proteomic studies have led to the identification of regulatory elements with different expression profiles in HTS and keloid tissues . The limited understanding of the pathophysiology of these processes has led to investigating a broad spectrum of potential antihypertrophic scarring candidates .
A peptide is an amino acid chain (amino acids being the building blocks of proteins), responsible for signalling different responses in the body. These amino chains already exist in the body in one form or another, which is why some consider them as ‘natural’ compounds (although testosterone exists in the human body too, adding extra is considered cheating in most cases). Peptides have been classified in research and manufacture according to a number sequence in many cases, which is why some are just numbers and letters (see later).
‘Peptides’ have become increasingly popular in bodybuilding/strength circles in the last 5 years or so, due in part to a reduction in availability of authentic steroids in the U.K., the legal aspects of steroid possession/use (peptides for ‘experimetal use are at press still considered legal), but mostly due to the fact that some mislead individuals are thinking they are the new Holy Grail of muscle growth (they aren’t). As a simple science lesson, synthetically produced GH, natural GH and Insulin are in fact complete protein peptide hormones, which as we know have been used in bodybuilding for the last 40-50 years or so. Before we get into what these designer peptides do though, I must supply a little scientific background as to what they actually are and even though I could go into a shit-load of scientific jargon here, you’ll just get bored and turn the page, so I’ll keep it as simple as I can.
Phenylephrine is readily eliminated by sulphate conjugation in the intestinal wall, and oxidative deamination by monoamine oxidative glucuronidation in the liver. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors can enhance the limited potential of phenylephrine for cardiac and pressor effects, by reducing metabolism. As a largely specific alpha adrenergic drug, with very weak beta agonism, there is little direct cardiac effect. However, in higher doses, there can be increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a reflex bradycardia. As an adrenergic agonist there is the potential to interact with other sympathomimetic drugs. In overdose phenylephrine can cause hypertension, headaches seizures tachycardia, and vomiting. There has been no evidence from carcinogenicity studies in rodents of any enhanced cancer risk over prolonged exposure.
GH secretagogues differ from exogenous rHGH in their effects primarily because endogenous GH contains all five isoforms of growth hormone, whereas exogenous GH contains only the 20 kilodalton isoform. Different isoforms affect tissues in discreet ways that the 20 kDa isoform cannot. Administration of GH secretagogues causes a pulse-release of GH from the pituitary which is cleared from the body within a few hours. This does not significantly raise plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels.