Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is the predominant form of thymosin in our bodies. It has been found in high concentrations in wound tissue and certain blood cells involved in clotting, signifying its important role in the healing process. In fact, recent studies have revealed that the first gene to be upregulated after an injury is the Tβ4 gene. As the body begins the recovery process, Tβ4 aids in the creation of new vessels in the injured area, which carry blood, nutrients, and reparative substances to the site. Tβ4 also has anti-inflammatory properties, and works to decrease the amount of inflammatory substances, called cytokines. Inflammation plays a large role in many of the symptoms associated with a large number of conditions (i.e., Lyme disease, CFS, FM, autoimmune diseases, infections, etc.), making the potential impact of Tβ4 quite extensive.

From the standpoint of protein synthesis and muscle repair, IGF-1 injections have also been shown to enhance the anticatabolic effects of insulin and to increase the protein synthesis normally induced by growth hormone. This is because, like insulin, IGF-1 encourages amino acid uptake into muscle cells, stimulates peripheral tissue uptake of glucose (which lowers blood glucose levels), and suppresses liver glucose production. That last fact is important and is actually why IGF-1 is even being considered as a diabetes-prevention drug. Insulin resistance can cause the liver to produce excess glucose, which then causes even more insulin insensitivity and can eventually result in type II diabetes, and IGF-1 can decrease the need for this type excessive insulin release.

Another major difference between GHRP 2 and GHRP 6 is that the former is a bit stronger and releases a lot more Growth Hormone as compared to GHRP 6. Therefore, if increasing Growth Hormone in you is of prime importance then consider choosing GHRP 2 makes a lot of sense. But the importance of the latter in stimulating appetite cannot be ignored altogether. Though GHRP 2 can also be used for the same purpose, it is certainly not in the same level as that of GHRP 6.
Peptides is from the latin word pepsis which means digestion. So in reality they cover anything in the body that aids digestion and since we get all our nutrients from this process the use of peptides is seemingly limitless. Recently biologically active peptides have been discovered in the heart, brain and skin so the potential uses and benefits of peptides in the future is really exciting.
Administration of peptides is normally subcutaneous or intramuscular. Peptides come as a fine white and delicate powder that must be reconstituted with bacteriostatic water or medical grade saline. An insulin syringe should always be used to administer the dose. When targeting muscles, look for a place where the layer of skin and fat are lean. Mixing two peptides in the same syringe is totally fine but I personally would advise not drawing/mixing doses and storing pins for future use.
Combined, the loss of muscle and bone mass, is a quick ticket to the grave. The lack of supporting muscle and bone tissue, means that falls are more likely to occur, lengthy hospital stays inevitable, and the immobility created from these sustained injuries, produce further reduction in muscle mass and bone mass. A vicious cycle, which can be stopped in its tracks through the use of peptides such as SARMs.
A SARM (an acronym for "Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator") is a drug that is chemically similar to anabolic steroids but with reduced androgenic properties. The main advantages SARMs have over anabolic steroids are androgen-receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and reduced side effects. SARMs also have the ability to differentiate between anabolic and androgenic activities, whereas steroids do not.
Peptides: Are a small chain of amino acids that isn’t quite long enough to be considered a protein. In other words they are the building blocks for protein in the body. They actually have a wide range of functions with the most popular being an increase in growth hormone, increase in recovery (and by default muscle building) and even a natural tan.
Though there are a lot of similarities between the two peptides, there is no denying the fact that they also have vast differences. Besides having differences in the release of growth hormones and stimulation of pituitary glands, GHRP 2 is known to have better control in the release of prolactin and Cortisol. That’s not all; GHRP 2-based supplements are relatively cheaper as compared to other supplements that are available in the market, including the ones that are GHRP-6 based. There are a few individuals that opt for GHRP 6 due to the fact that it has lesser impact on prolactin and Cortisol; at least as compared to GHRP 2.

GHRP-6 is a small molecular weight peptide, effective when orally administered, stable, and economically low priced than others.13 Our observation that GHRP-6 intravenous administration proved to be safe in a dose scale-up clinical trial in healthy human volunteers is significantly important.14 Our demonstration that there is no in vivo pharmacological interaction between the peptide and a well-validated cardiovascular drug such as the beta blocker agent metoprolol is also relevant for GHRP-6 pharmacological “positioning”.15 Since for years, GHRP-6 has been the platform of our experimental work; we address particular attention to its investigational development as for hexarelin and GHRP-2.

Our group has contributed to validate the potential antifibrotic abilities of GHRP-6 in animal models of liver cirrhosis38 and hypertrophic scars,39 in which via a peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-driven cascade, GHRP-6 intervention reduced TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which translated in a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins.
Various experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of CJC 1295-DAC in vivo and the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism has reported dose-dependent increases in mean plasma GH concentrations by 2-10 fold for more than 6 days and increased IGF-1 concentrations 1.5-3 fold for 9-11 days after a single injection. Mean half-life was shown to be 5.8-8.1 days, also after multiple doses mean IGF-1 levels remained above baseline for up to 28 days. No serious adverse reactions were reported in any group.
Despite the controversies, some scientists continued with additional studies and again proved IGF-1 to actually prolong life…at least in worms.  Then, in 2001, scientists discovered that the use of IGF-1 resulted in a proliferation of cancer cells, especially throughout the breast and colon, and a 2012 study found that both too much or too little IGF-1 could contribute to dying from cancer; implying that IGF-1 actually helped patients with terminal cancer live longer.

The impact of the treatment on the neodermal matrix reconstitution was qualitatively graded as described [17, 18]:(0)Immature granulation tissue with a null or incipient formation of collagen fibrils, focally distributed with no alignment and not organized meshwork. Fibrin material prevails in the field. Mallory staining is detected in scarce foci.(1)Scarce collagen fibrils suggestive of a primitive degree of organization, focally distributed, without horizontal alignment along the wound bed. Yet, fibrin occupies more than 50% of the field. Limited number of primitive neoformed vessels with empty lumen. Relative increase of positivity to Mallory staining.(2)A general but coarse image of ECM granulation tissue accumulation, containing intermixed vertically and horizontally oriented collagen fibrils. Full replacement of fibrin by collagen. Fibrin has been fully replaced by collagen. Affinity to Mallory staining is observed.(3)Complete ECM reconstitution, with mature and finely organized collagen fibrils horizontally deposited in the neodermis. The whole matrix appears positive to Mallory staining.
Conclusions: Subcutaneous administration of CJC 1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 ug/ kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after multiple doses. These data support the potential utility of CJC 1295 as a therapeutic agent.
Aging often comes with many undesirable effects on our bodies including increased fat, decreased muscle muscle mass and low energy.  Some of these issues can be caused by adult growth hormone deficiency.  Peptide therapies provide a healthy option to reinvigorate the natural release of growth hormone in the body and reverse the negative effects of aging.
Morphological evidences representative of the GHRP-6 effect in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Effect of the GHRP-6 on AMI size and severity. (A, B) Macroscopic and histological images of AMI damage in animals treated with placebo. (C, D) Macroscopic and histological images representative of the GHRP-6 cardioprotective effect. Histological fragments were in every case collected from apparently normal zones, adjacent to the AMI necrotic core. Rats treated with GHRP-6 exhibited mostly preserved or marginally damaged (sarcoplasmic edema) myofibrils. No myofibrolysis was observed, although a number of ghost nuclei appeared. (H/E, ×20 magnification).
Remember the GHRP you select is used for a few reasons. One is to prompt the release of the increase pulse in GH you have initiated with the GHRH you have selected to use. This is by inhibition of Somatostatin. So you are actually selecting the timing of the release of your natural production of  still physiologic amount of GH.  Another reason is to actually contribute a little more to the amplitude of you GH pulse.
The DAC technology in the CJC-1295 enables the compound to bind itself covalently with any circulating albumin, after it has been administered through a subcutaneous injection. However, the reason why the half-life could be extended from a few minutes to several days is more profound. The reactive group in the CJC-1295 binds to a peptide through bioconjugation. The peptide then finds a neucleophilic unit within the blood and reacts with it in order to create a firmer bond.
Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide, meaning that it is composed of five amino acids, that mimics the body’s natural GH release.  Ipamorelin is a growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) and analogue of the hormone Ghrelin. It induces GH release and increases the number of somatarophs(cells responsible for GH release) in a GH pulse by suppressing somatostatin.
Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives.
In June 2011, the delegate considered a request to restrict the use of chloramphenicol (Schedule 3) to ophthalmic use for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis only. The delegate decided that a more restrictive wording of the Schedule 3 chloramphenicol entry would not result in further benefits concerning its ophthalmic use, therefore the wording of the entry remained unchanged.

For example, insufficient protein or calories can cause IGF-1 to plummet, while ample calories can cause IGF-1 to increase. For example, one study of women who fed with excess calories over and above their normal metabolic rate noted a 19% increase in IGF-1 after two weeks of overfeeding, with 46% of the weight gain from  lean mass and 54% from bodyfat. Fasting insulin doubled in these women, and testosterone levels also significantly increased.
Three of the submissions did not support the proposal highlighting the impact the change in scheduling would have on product currently on the market, industry, pharmacists and consumers. Two submissions noted that there has not been a history of concern with this combination of substances. One submission, referring to the NEJM article, believed that a lack of information about the study means that it cannot be relied upon as there is not a meaningful assessment of the results.
Very tough to say. I am not a doctor and this is not to be taken, interpreted or construed as medical advice. Please talk with a licensed medical professional about this. These are just my own personal thoughts and not a prescription or a diagnosis or any form of health care whatsoever. I could possibly help but would need to see your health history, blood, biomarkers, etc. I'd be happy to help you via a personal one-on-one consult. Just go to and then choose a 20 or 60 minute consult, whichever you'd prefer. I can schedule ASAP after you get that.
The ACMS recommended listing Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604 in Appendix D, Item 5.
As the name indicates, this peptide is a fragment of human growth hormone. It is more specifically a modified form of the amino acids 176-191 in the C-terminal section of the latter substance. Bodybuilders mainly use it enhance fat burning for improved and more noticeable muscle growth. For weight loss, HGH Fragment 176-191 is thought to be considerably more potent than regular growth hormone. It also offers anti-aging benefits as a result of positive effects on IGF-1 levels.

The response of these wounds reminds us of the pattern of healing described for MG53 protein (a membrane repair machinery member), so that the treatment facilitated wound healing along with a reduced scarring in rodent models. This antiscar effect was explained by interfering with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblasts differentiation and reduction of ECM proteins accumulation [22]. Similarly, antiscarring healing properties are described for plants’ principles that downregulate the expression of fibrogenic-related molecules such as TGF-β1 and the downstream events, leading to fibrosis and scar formation [23]. In addition to a direct action of GHRP-6 on TGFB1 gene expression, we deem that the reduction of inflammatory effectors could have also contributed to enhancing the healing process and to reducing fibrosis. In an animal model of liver ischemia/reperfusion, we previously demonstrated that GHRP-6 prevented internal organs parenchymal activation and the onset of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines [24]. Subsequent studies have demonstrated the ability of different GHRPs to ameliorate local and systemic inflammatory processes in a variety of experimental scenarios by suppressing the activation of NF-κB, the consequent expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and acting as chemokine receptor antagonist [25–27]. Differentiation to myofibroblasts, collagen fibrillogenesis, and matrix accumulation are controlled by opposing forces: proinflammatory and profibrogenic, that require a fine tuning to ensure a proper esthetic healing and effective mechanical properties of the ECM [28, 29]. The overall interpretation of the data from (i) the rate of closure, (ii) microscopic appearance of the collagen fibrils alignment/organization, (iii) impact of the treatment on the transcriptional expression of cytoskeleton filamentous proteins (smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), desmin, and vimentin) supports the hypothesis that, in this context, GHRP-6 has shifted the balance toward “a more regenerative” rather than a reparative phenotype.
[2] Blocked growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion and absence of the synergic action of GHRP-6 plus GH-releasing hormone in patients with hypothalamopituitary disconnection: evidence that GHRP-6 main action is exerted at the hypothalamic level. V Popovic, S Damjanovic, D Micic, M Djurovic, C Dieguez, and F F Casanueva. JCEM 1995 80: 942-7; doi:10.1210/jc.80.3.942.
Biokey Research OSTA-MAX 25 BRAND: BIOKEY RESEARCH  OSTARINE (MK-2866) Purity : 99% Molecular Formula : C19H14F3N3O3 Molecular Weight: 389.33 CAS#: 841205-47-8 Description: MK-2866 Ostarine 30ml @ 25mg per ml Recommended dosage: 0.5-1ml daily DESCRIPTION OSTA-MAX 25 by BioKey Research contains 25mg/ml of MK-2866. This compound is often compared it its illegal anabolic counterparts due its ability to reduce body fat while increasing lean muscle mass. OSTA-MAX 25…

The number of infiltrating immunoinflammatory cells and neoformed vessels was determined within the granulation tissue of each wound. For this purpose, images of at least 10 microscopic fields (10–20x magnification) were captured and photographed so that mature vascular structures and infiltrated mononuclear cells were counted along with the assistance of the ImageJ processing system, version 1.46r.
Unfortunately, as we age, the amount of growth hormone that is produced starts dropping, and into our 40’s it starts dropping off rapidly. This is where GHRP-6 can help a lot, as it mimics ghrelin in the body, which stimulates the ghrelin receptors. When this occurs, a signal is sent to the pituitary gland, increasing GH production. Another benefit of GHRP-6 is that it blocks out a hormone called somatostatin, which is the enemy of HGH secretion. Finally, there is evidence that GHRP-6 can have a positive effect on the nervous system by protecting neurons, giving the user a much higher overall wellness.
I stopped the colostrum and my ” symptoms ” subsided, seems I have a moderately enlarged prostate which doesn’t run in my family on either side, my question is could the colostrum possibly cause the prostate to enlarge due to the igf-1 at a certain age,? due to a possible decline in testosterone, or could the benefits of colostrum outweigh the prostate issue?
As the name indicates, this peptide is a fragment of human growth hormone. It is more specifically a modified form of the amino acids 176-191 in the C-terminal section of the latter substance. Bodybuilders mainly use it enhance fat burning for improved and more noticeable muscle growth. For weight loss, HGH Fragment 176-191 is thought to be considerably more potent than regular growth hormone. It also offers anti-aging benefits as a result of positive effects on IGF-1 levels.
As with any GHRP or GHRH, administration of GHRP-6 doses should be done no sooner than 2 hours following the last meal containing carbohydrates or fats, and no sooner than 30 minutes prior to the next consumption of carbohydrates or fats. As evidenced by studies referenced in the introduction of this profile, the consumption of fats and carbohydrates will significantly blunt (but not eliminate) HGH release. HGH pulses will generally reach their peak by about 30 minutes following injection, after which it is then acceptable to consume a meal containing carbohydrates and fats.

Molly Hunsinger is a communications professional and certified group exercise instructor and fitness trainer. Her medical, health and fitness industry background spans nearly three decades with experience working as an instructor trainer, staff trainer, facility manager, group exercise program manager, physician relations manager and marketing director. As a media professional, she has developed and launched award-winning allied marketing and advertising campaigns for luxury retailers, leading nonprofit organizations and foundations and written numerous articles and blogs for both digital and print publications. Molly holds a bachelor’s degree in mass communications from the University of South Florida with a concentration in journalism and digital media studies.
GHRP’s have been used whilst steroid cycling, but due to their nature and comparative weakness to steroids and the like, I find the best use of these compounds is during and after post cycle therapy in an attempt to keep as much of the steroid-induced gains as possible as well as helping the users mind-set as they still feel like they are ‘on’ something…sad but true. GHRP’s are also cycled in an alternate fashion with GH (and IGF), so as to keep the body’s natural GH production systems from de-sensitizing and shutting down completely…much in the same way that steroid users alternate HCG with steroids; to keep the natural testosterone system functioning optimally.
Side effects resultant from GHRP-6 are typically what would be expected from the use of HGH due to the fact that the end result of GHRP-6 use is that of vastly increased HGH levels. The difference between GHRP-6 and synthetic HGH is, of course, the fact that the HGH resultant from GHRP-6 use is endogenous HGH manufactured by the human body. Nevertheless, GHRP-6 side effects are primarily side effects that occur from HGH use, but there do exist GHRP-6 side effects that are unique to GHRP-6 itself. It is important to note that GHRP-6is not a steroid hormone, nor is it a sex specific hormone, and because of this it can be used by both females and males equally without fear of androgenic or virilization side effects, which GHRP-6 side effects are void of.
Before the discovery of ghrelin, synthetic GH secretagogs were available. Several studies investigated the effects of these substances on human sleep. Oral administration of the GH secretagog MK-677 for 1 week prompts a distinct sleep-promoting effect in healthy young male volunteers, whereas a weak effect is observed in elderly subjects. This study shows that oral administration of a peptide is capable of promoting sleep. After repetitive intravenous administration of GH-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6), non-REM sleep stage 2 increases. Similar to the effects of ghrelin in male subjects GH, ACTH, and cortisol are elevated. In a set of studies, the intranasal, oral, and sublingual administration of GHRP-6 was tested. By these routes of administration the effects of the peptide on the sleep EEG and on hormone secretion are less distinct and partly different from those after intravenous injection. In contrast to the sleep-promoting effects of GHRP-6 and ghrelin, hexarelin prompts a decrease of SWS, whereas the pattern of endocrine effects after hexarelin resemble the endocrine changes after ghrelin and GHRP-6 in that there is a marked stimulation of GH. The decrease of SWS after hexarelin may be related to negative feedback inhibition of endogenous GHRH. After a single dose of GHRP-2 during the third period of REM sleep, sleep remains unchanged. The lack of effects in this study may be related to the method that uses only a single injection of the substance.
Prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympics, concerns were raised regarding cardarine which was creating significant and “remarkable” performance and endurance advantages without being regulated, so some athletes were potentially getting unfair advantages. While tests for cardarine weren’t developed in time for the Olympic Games, the following year PPARδ agonists (of which cardarine is included) were added to the WADA prohibited list.

In another study, it was concluded that the major target of the GHRP-6 in vivo (both laboratory animals and humans) is the hypothalamus. From the observation, it was concluded that the GH release induced by the central GHRP-6 injections in guinea pigs was inhibited by the central action of somatostatin. Furthermore, an inhibition by somatostatin with the activated GRF neurons, induced by GHRP-6, was observed via receptors known to be located on or near the GRF themselves. This particular experiment further indicated that GHRP-6 is effectively stimulating GH release from somatotrophs through different receptors, the mechanisms of which are not yet known (Chan et al. 1989).
In February 1997, the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) decided to reschedule diclofenac dermal preparations (creams) containing 1 per cent or less of diclofenac from Schedule 4 to Schedule 2. This decision was based on the safety profile of a 1 per cent formulation and the then approved indications for use in readily recognised conditions (minor pain relief), which did not include treatment of solar keratosis.
In extracardiac models of striated muscles atrophy, GHRP-2 exerted a potent myoprotective effect, presumably via the direct agonistic stimulation of the GHS-R1a since no elevation of IGF-1 transcript was observed.49 Thus, it is likely that GHRP cardioprotective effects in scenarios of DCM may be somehow mediated by a trophic or anabolic mechanism. Based on the benefits of GHRP-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate tested on cultured myoblasts showed that it induced the expression of myogenic proteins and IGF-1 levels similar to the concentrations of energy metabolites and the corresponding enzymes. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include amelioration of sarcopenia and/or cardiac cachexia.50
The prescription form of IGF-1 most often injected is “mecasermin”, which goes by the trade name Increlex. Manufactured using recombinant DNA technology, mecasermin is clinically used to treat IGF-1 deficiency and stunted growth. It is also prescribed to patients who have developed antibody resistance to normal growth hormone therapy. Increlex is actually identical to natural IGF-1, meaning that it has the identical 70 amino acid sequence of IGF-1 that the body produces. In other words, it’s not some kind of growth hormone “precursor”. It’s just straight up IGF-1.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous administration of CJC 1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 ug/ kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after multiple doses. These data support the potential utility of CJC 1295 as a therapeutic agent.
Peptides can make the goal of growing bigger muscles possible. They may also help to burn body fat, improve muscle recovery and slow aging. Each type has specific purposes for which it is more useful. These compounds are in many cases beneficial because of how they boost release of growth hormone by the pituitary gland. GH secretion is amplified when GHRH and GHRP substances are used together. As awesome as the benefits they offer sound, you should remember that peptides can be legally used for research purpose only.
Results in Fig. 1.8 of normal young men (left panel) and women (right panel) demonstrate that iv bolus combined GHRP-2 and GHRH at the respective doses of 1 μg/kg GHRH and a subthreshold GH-releasing dose of 0.03 μg/kg GHRP-2 released GH synergistically (Bowers, 1998). From these studies, GHRP is envisioned to act on the hypothalamus to release an unknown factor (U factor) rather than endogenous GHRH which subsequently acts concomitantly with GHRH on the pituitary somatotroph to release GH synergistically. In this study, the important specific finding is that GHRP-2 augments GHRH release even when GHRH is present in excess amounts, and the concomitant GHRP-2 dose of 0.03 μg/kg is a subthreshold GH-releasing amount. Thus, GHRP + GHRH is not releasing GH in this study by augmenting endogenous GHRH release and, furthermore, GHRP+GHRH release in vitro is additive and not synergistic. In addition, from other high-dosage GHRP-2 data, that is, 10 μg/kg sc (not shown), we have postulated that at high doses GHRPs do act on the hypothalamus to release endogenous GHRH because high-dose GHRP-2 (10 μg/kg sc) releases the same large amount of GH released by combined GHRH + GHRP-2 at 1 + 1 μg/kg iv (Bowers, 1998a,b).

You’re no doubt taking it for the fairy tale positive side effects, which have already been outlined, but like any caper about something enchanted, the magic comes with a price. For GHRP6 these can include flu-like symptoms, joint aches, headaches and water retention. Prolonged use can give you a tingling feeling in your skin than can also lead to a loss of sensitivity to touch. Yeah, you don’t want it down there. Fortunately, this is often in rare cases and when you consider even garden-variety paracetamol can dish out hives, diarrhoea and nausea then by comparison these aren’t huge risk factors. The biggest drawback is that it has a meagre half-life of 15-60 minutes, which means you have to take it daily for it to be effective, with the primary method of administration being a big ole fat needle. So the idea of turning the glutes into something that resembles nanna’s pincushion may deter pretty much all-conscientious pain objectors.