Our hormone levels decline as we age, and therefore the effects of these hormones decline proportionally. Even if you exercise and eat well, you will still experience this decline in hormone production and all of the associated adverse health effects that this brings. To fight ageing, and increase vitality, we can restore our hormones to their youthful levels.
SARMs can be taken orally as well, and regularly stacked together for improved results. They have been around for years now (although only recently gaining popularity) and there is a wealth of studies done on them as well. Check out our blog for a run-down of the most comprehensive and recent studies and how SARMs has been demonstrated to show positive changes.

IGF-1 also increases the activity of muscle protein synthesis and the activity of muscle stem cells (also called satellite cells) for repair of damaged muscle. This is probably why intense weight training is one primary stimulus for a natural release of IGF-1 in muscle. As a matter of fact, exercise researchers have found that systemic IGF-1 normally produced in the liver isn’t even required for this type of muscle repair, as other IGF-1 forms produced by your own muscles during and post-exercise allows for adequate muscle tissue repair.


To receive further information and prices of Peptides You will need to complete a simple online medical questionnaire. This is a legal requirement due to the regulation of Peptides in Australia. We cannot legally advertise specific Peptides to the general public without first ascertaining you are over 18 years of age and have submitted the required medical records.
Hypertrophic scarring is a form of abnormal, exuberant healing, locally aggressive, and recurrent cutaneous fibroproliferative condition, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation during the cutaneous healing process. Including keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTS), these aberrant processes lead to esthetically disfiguring scars, patients’ psychological stress, and functional impairment [1]. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of these raised dermal scars are poorly understood. Recent whole genome profiling and proteomic studies have led to the identification of regulatory elements with different expression profiles in HTS and keloid tissues [2]. The limited understanding of the pathophysiology of these processes has led to investigating a broad spectrum of potential antihypertrophic scarring candidates [3].
The sports pros and scientists have known about significance of peptides for bodybuilding and performance enhancement for many years but it is just in the last 2-3 years that the researchers have been able to know the dipeptides and tripeptides in the hydrolysed whey proteins that offer positive results on sports recovery and bodybuilding performance. So, if you really wish like achieving the desired bodybuilding goals, you can take natural peptide supplements.

With a blend of peptide and GH supplements, Ipamorelin can greatly help you in your weight loss endeavours. Using it with IGF-1 which is a natural growth hormone, can help you achieve even greater results. With lower dosage, you won’t increase muscle mass, your body will naturally decrease body fat levels, and you will begin to metabolize food faster, meaning you burn more calories in less time, for greater weight loss results.
The impact of the treatment on the neodermal matrix reconstitution was qualitatively graded as described [17, 18]:(0)Immature granulation tissue with a null or incipient formation of collagen fibrils, focally distributed with no alignment and not organized meshwork. Fibrin material prevails in the field. Mallory staining is detected in scarce foci.(1)Scarce collagen fibrils suggestive of a primitive degree of organization, focally distributed, without horizontal alignment along the wound bed. Yet, fibrin occupies more than 50% of the field. Limited number of primitive neoformed vessels with empty lumen. Relative increase of positivity to Mallory staining.(2)A general but coarse image of ECM granulation tissue accumulation, containing intermixed vertically and horizontally oriented collagen fibrils. Full replacement of fibrin by collagen. Fibrin has been fully replaced by collagen. Affinity to Mallory staining is observed.(3)Complete ECM reconstitution, with mature and finely organized collagen fibrils horizontally deposited in the neodermis. The whole matrix appears positive to Mallory staining.
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid hunger-stimulating peptide and hormone that is produced mainly by P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach and epsilon cells of the pancreas. Ghrelin together with obestatin is produced from cleavage of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide (also known as the appetite-regulating hormone or growth hormone secretagogue or motilin-related peptide) which in turn is encoded by the GHRL gene. Ghrelin receptors are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, including the pituitary, stomach, intestine, pancreas, thymus, gonads, thyroid, and heart. The diversity of ghrelin receptor locations suggests ghrelin has diverse biological functions.
In November 1999, the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) decided to reschedule mometasone from Schedule 4 to Schedule 3 for use in aqueous nasal sprays for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, with certain dose and age conditions. The NDPSC considered that this rescheduling was appropriate given mometasone's safety in use based on pharmacokinetic parameters, and that the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis has a place in Schedule 3.
Finally, an exciting medical opportunity could be opened for synthetic GHRP to treat the threatening cancer-associated anorexia–cachexia syndrome in advanced-stage cancer patients. Although the mechanistic bases of this syndrome are not fully understood, it represents a major impediment for the course of chemotherapy. In a rodent model of cancer-bearing chemotherapy, GHRP-2 administration increased appetite/food intake and prolonged median survival time, which certainly suggests that GHRP-2 may improve the quality of life of cancer patients by correcting its nutritional and metabolic states.61 These data may also incite to further studies in the search for a potential niche for GHRP to counteract the catabolic states of prolonged critical illness, invasive surgeries, severe burn traumas, etc.
This class of peptides is used to enhance the insulin-like growth of muscles by bodybuilders. These compounds are great for targeting specific muscle groups. Also known as Somatomedic C, IGF-1 has become one of the more popular peptides used for muscle building in the last 10 years or so. Englishman Dorian Yates, who was named Mr. Olympian for six straight years in the 1990s, is thought to have been a prominent user. This contributed to make many professional bodybuilders to include it in their regimen as well. IGF-1 is also available in different variants.
CJC-1295 is a fast-acting Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone designed to enhance the body’s natural production and release of human growth hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1). In doing so, CJC-1295 reverses the age-related decline, generates new muscle cells and increases fat loss. Another great trait of CJC-1295 is its ability to promote slow wave sleep, a deep sleep responsible for the highest levels of cell regeneration, muscle growth and memory retention.
This class of peptides is used to enhance the insulin-like growth of muscles by bodybuilders. These compounds are great for targeting specific muscle groups. Also known as Somatomedic C, IGF-1 has become one of the more popular peptides used for muscle building in the last 10 years or so. Englishman Dorian Yates, who was named Mr. Olympian for six straight years in the 1990s, is thought to have been a prominent user. This contributed to make many professional bodybuilders to include it in their regimen as well. IGF-1 is also available in different variants.

The discovery of the role of Tβ4 in the process of immune regulation has lead to its use as a valuable therapeutic agent. Tβ4 has been used in the treatment of HIV, AIDS, Influenza, colds, and various infections. It has been utilized in the management of various inflammatory conditions, as well as part of treatment following heart attack due to its cardio and neuroprotective effects.


Ghrelin has many activities in the body besides stimulating GH release. It stimulates appetite, is cardioprotective, can help protect cells against oxidative damage, can reduce inflammation and promote healing, and can promote fat-burning in muscle. There is also some effect on increase in cortisol production via increase in ACTH, and increase in prolactin. However, where the activity of ghrelin is comparable to that which ordinarily occurs during fasting, effects on cortisol and prolactin likewise are comparably only to that experienced while fasting.
This class of peptides is used to enhance the insulin-like growth of muscles by bodybuilders. These compounds are great for targeting specific muscle groups. Also known as Somatomedic C, IGF-1 has become one of the more popular peptides used for muscle building in the last 10 years or so. Englishman Dorian Yates, who was named Mr. Olympian for six straight years in the 1990s, is thought to have been a prominent user. This contributed to make many professional bodybuilders to include it in their regimen as well. IGF-1 is also available in different variants.
Side effects resultant from GHRP-6 are typically what would be expected from the use of HGH due to the fact that the end result of GHRP-6 use is that of vastly increased HGH levels. The difference between GHRP-6 and synthetic HGH is, of course, the fact that the HGH resultant from GHRP-6 use is endogenous HGH manufactured by the human body. Nevertheless, GHRP-6 side effects are primarily side effects that occur from HGH use, but there do exist GHRP-6 side effects that are unique to GHRP-6 itself. It is important to note that GHRP-6is not a steroid hormone, nor is it a sex specific hormone, and because of this it can be used by both females and males equally without fear of androgenic or virilization side effects, which GHRP-6 side effects are void of.
Y.-T. Shen, J. J. Lynch, R. J. Hargreaves, and R. J. Gould, “A growth hormone secretagogue prevents-ischemic-induced mortality independently of the growth hormone pathway in dogs with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 306, no. 2, pp. 815–820, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
If you’re looking to increase your muscle growth and improve strength, whether for competitive bodybuilding or to achieve a personal physique goal, our Australian muscle building peptide supplements can help. Our dedicated research and product development team have consistently produced new products that perform better than other supplement brands, so you know you’ll be getting the best peptide supplements available. If you’re new to peptide supplements and have questions, read our FAQ’s, or alternatively email us at info@musclepeptidesaustralia.com.au and our clinic doctor can help you with your questions.

The use of peptides is not necessarily a case of one or the other. While you can derive benefit from using either GHRH or GHRP, the effects can be amplified by using both. This, for one, will help to better keep levels of somatostatin under control. The amount of that hormone is an issue you will be forced to contend with when using only GHRH. This is because it is known to inhibit growth hormone.


The discovery of the role of Tβ4 in the process of immune regulation has lead to its use as a valuable therapeutic agent. Tβ4 has been used in the treatment of HIV, AIDS, Influenza, colds, and various infections. It has been utilized in the management of various inflammatory conditions, as well as part of treatment following heart attack due to its cardio and neuroprotective effects.
Bremelanotide PT 141 was developed from Melanotan II, targeting its aphrodisiac effects. This peptide has been shown to have a substantial effect on libido, generating sexual arousal in both men and women within minutes of administration. It has been shown to be effective in treating erectile dysfunction, even in men who have not responded to other ED treatments, such as Viagara. This peptide is also able to cross the blood-brain-barrier, bypassing the vascular system and acting at the level of the central nervous system. This property gives Bremelanotide an advantage over traditional ED drugs, which can decrease blood pressure to dangerous levels. This peptide can be administered as a nasal spray, making its use convenient and discreet.
I have questions about combined therapy of CJC 1295 and Ipamorelin at the same time on a daily basis for both. The compounding pharmacies do not clearly state whether the CJC is with or without DAC. If it is the CJC with DAC, which sustains elevated GH and IGF-1 for several days, would taking it nightly in conjunction with the Ipramorelin, that is suggested to be taken TID but is being recommended only once at night, be over-stimulatory? If the CJC is without DAC, why take two pepetides simultaneously ,that have similar effects? I am just not clear why taking a daily dose of CJC with Ipamorelin as a single dose is better than taking the CJC with DAC twice per week alone or take the CJC with DAC for a while then switch to the Ipamorelin for a while?
Similar to GHRP 2, this peptide is a more potent releaser of growth hormone, also acting on the ghrelin receptors of the anterior pituitary. Also like GHRP 2, GHRP 6 leads to increased growth hormone production, increased lead body mass, and decreased adiposity. Due to the peptide’s ghrelin-like properties, administration can lead to increased appetite.

The Half Life of GHRP 2 is pretty short. GHRP 2 helps improve the levels of calcium in the body and this can in turn facilitate the secretion of other growth hormones. GHRP 2 is believed to be more potent in its operation as compared to other peptide forms, including GHRP 6. GHRP 2 has the ability to stimulate secretion of other growth hormones and increase food consumption. When you start taking in GHRP 2 at regular intervals the level of growth hormones being released in your body increases considerably. GHRP 2 is known to have better control in the release of prolactin and Cortisol. 
In June 2005, the NDPSC decided to reschedule pantoprazole from Schedule 4 to Schedule 3 when in oral preparations containing 20 mg or less of pantoprazole for the relief of heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), in packs containing not more than 14 days' supply. This decision was based on the available efficacy and safety data which supported a Schedule 3 entry.
First of all CARDARINE is is a PPARδ agonist and NOT a SARM. However they do work in similar ways. Cardarine is the ULTIMATE endurance solution, so bad WADA even has GW 501516 on their list of banned substances due to it's insane competitive edge. Expect great levels of intensity, forget about rest times, and break plateaus like never before. Some advantages of Cardarine: See results on first dose, Shred unnatural levels of fat without going catabolic, can be stacked with anything, Increase in Muscle Growth and Endurance. GW-501516 is really the jack of all trades for those experienced researchers.

A SARM (an acronym for "Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator") is a drug that is chemically similar to anabolic steroids but with reduced androgenic properties. The main advantages SARMs have over anabolic steroids are androgen-receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and reduced side effects. SARMs also have the ability to differentiate between anabolic and androgenic activities, whereas steroids do not.
In studies of the opioid control of GH secretion, several peptide analogues of met-enkephalin were found to be potent GH secretagogues. These include the GH-releasing peptide GHRP-6 (Fig. 7-21), hexarelin (His-d2MeTrp-Ala-Trp-dPhe-Lys-NH2), and other more potent analogues including cyclic peptides and modified pentapeptides. Subsequently, a series of nonpeptidyl GHRP mimetics were synthesized with greater oral bioavailability, including the spiropiperidine MK-0677 and the shorter acting benzylpiperidine L-163,540 (see Fig. 7-21). Common to all these compounds, and the basis of their differentiation from GHRH analogues in pharmacologic activity screens, is their activation of phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. This property was exploited in a cloning strategy that led to the identification of a novel GPCR GHS-R that is highly selective for the GH secretagogue class of ligands. The GHS-R is unrelated to the GHRH receptor and is highly expressed in the anterior pituitary gland and multiple brain areas, including the medial basal hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the mesencephalic nuclei that are centers of dopamine and serotonin production.

Perhaps, the primary reason why peptides are used in bodybuilding has to do with how they improve growth hormone production. It is no longer a secret how HGH helps to improve lean muscle mass. Your body uses peptides to promote increased secretion of HGH. They, therefore, make it easier for interested persons to achieve bigger muscle mass. Their usage may help enhance strength. It is even said that these small amino acid chains could boost testosterone production.
This peptide is a modified fragment of hGH which contains the portion of the molecule that is believed to be responsible for hGH’s anti-obesity effects. The peptide has been shown to increase fat burning without the increase in blood sugar and growth rate that has been seen with hGH itself. AOD 9604 has been deemed safe for chronic use by the FDA, receiving Human GRAS status in 2014. In addition to its utility as an anti-obesity peptide, AOD 9604 has been shown to have very favorable cartilage repair and regenerative properties, especially when paired with peptide BPC 157.

The ACMS recommended that Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604 be included in Schedule 4.


MuscleSport PCT Stack 1x MuscleSport PCT Revolution 1x MuscleSport Test Revolution Black The MuscleSport PCT Stack is the ultimate Post Cycle Therapy supplement combo. Perfect for anyone who has spent time using anabolics or SARMs and want to ensure that their natural testosterone production is at its peak and that any excess estrogen is taken care of.  


In November 1999, the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) decided to reschedule mometasone from Schedule 4 to Schedule 3 for use in aqueous nasal sprays for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, with certain dose and age conditions. The NDPSC considered that this rescheduling was appropriate given mometasone's safety in use based on pharmacokinetic parameters, and that the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis has a place in Schedule 3.
This class of peptides is used to enhance the insulin-like growth of muscles by bodybuilders. These compounds are great for targeting specific muscle groups. Also known as Somatomedic C, IGF-1 has become one of the more popular peptides used for muscle building in the last 10 years or so. Englishman Dorian Yates, who was named Mr. Olympian for six straight years in the 1990s, is thought to have been a prominent user. This contributed to make many professional bodybuilders to include it in their regimen as well. IGF-1 is also available in different variants.

Another benefit of CJC 1295 is its ability to promote slow wave sleep. Slow wave sleep is also known as deep sleep and is the portion of sleep responsible for the highest level of muscle growth and memory retention. SWS decreases significantly in older adults and also with people who tend to exercise later in the evening. Clinical studies have shown that a once-daily administration of CJC 1295 normalizes the GHRH response and can induce significantly deeper sleep.


IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor) and MGF (Mechano-growth factor) are the peptides that help with insulin-like growth of muscles. In the case of mechano growth factor, it helps stimulate the recovery of damaged muscle tissue and activate satellite cells to produce more muscle tissue. MGF should only be dosed post workout and even on recovery days to utilize the full muscle building effects.
The interim decision was to include in Schedule 4 and in Appendix D Item 5 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRHs), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) as well as new individual substance entries for CJC-1295, ipamorelin, pralmorelin (Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2), Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6, hexarelin and AOD-9604.

In February 1997, the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) decided to reschedule diclofenac dermal preparations (creams) containing 1 per cent or less of diclofenac from Schedule 4 to Schedule 2. This decision was based on the safety profile of a 1 per cent formulation and the then approved indications for use in readily recognised conditions (minor pain relief), which did not include treatment of solar keratosis.
 Please note, as this is a prescription item, one of our doctors will review your profile and approve your order if appropriate. A prescription will only be issued in accordance to the prescribing guidelines, and for use that strictly complies to the doctor’s directions and dosage. This script will be forwarded to our dispensary team, and placed in our secure, internal records.
Despite all these pharmacological advantages and that GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile, their clinical development has been erratic and irregular. This has been a deterrence factor for their definitive positioning within cardiology and intensive care medicine for years. In the meantime, novel drugs and therapeutic strategies are demanded to protect organs and tissues exposed to ischemia and other lethal insults in the clinical practice.

In June 2011, the delegate considered a request to restrict the use of chloramphenicol (Schedule 3) to ophthalmic use for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis only. The delegate decided that a more restrictive wording of the Schedule 3 chloramphenicol entry would not result in further benefits concerning its ophthalmic use, therefore the wording of the entry remained unchanged.
Author Contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: JBA, AAC, DGBH, YMM, ARU, AGO, VFC, FHB, GGN. Analyzed the data: JBA, AAC, DGBH, YMM, ARU, AGO, VFC, FHB. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: JBA. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: JBA, AGO, YMM. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: JBA, AAC, DGBH, YMM, ARU, AGO, VFC, FHB, QB, GGN. Jointly developed the structure and arguments for the paper: JBA, AGO, GGN. Made critical revisions and approved final version: QB, GGN. All authors reviewed and approved of the final manuscript.
Administration of peptides is normally subcutaneous or intramuscular. Peptides come as a fine white and delicate powder that must be reconstituted with bacteriostatic water or medical grade saline. An insulin syringe should always be used to administer the dose. When targeting muscles, look for a place where the layer of skin and fat are lean. Mixing two peptides in the same syringe is totally fine but I personally would advise not drawing/mixing doses and storing pins for future use.
Ghrelin has many activities in the body besides stimulating GH release. It stimulates appetite, is cardioprotective, can help protect cells against oxidative damage, can reduce inflammation and promote healing, and can promote fat-burning in muscle. There is also some effect on increase in cortisol production via increase in ACTH, and increase in prolactin. However, where the activity of ghrelin is comparable to that which ordinarily occurs during fasting, effects on cortisol and prolactin likewise are comparably only to that experienced while fasting.
The delegates made an interim decision to include teeth whitening preparations containing more than 18 per cent of carbamide peroxide and more than 6 per cent (20 volume) of hydrogen peroxide in Appendix C. The delegates also decided to exempt from the proposed Appendix C entry teeth whitening preparations containing 18 per cent or less of carbamide peroxide and 6 per cent or less of hydrogen peroxide manufactured and supplied solely for direct in-clinic use by registered dental practitioners as part of their dental practice. The proposed implementation date for this decision was 1 May 2013.
The known side effects of IGF-1 injections include jaw pain, facial and hand swelling and heart-rhythm disturbances, especially if doses of more than 100 micrograms (mcg) are injected. Exceeding 100mcg of IGF-1 can actually cause your heart to stop beating and blood pressure to drop dramatically. This is caused by an IGF-1-induced drop in blood phosphate levels, and in the bodybuilding community is often prevented by administering phosphate with the IGF-1.
In June 2005, the NDPSC decided to reschedule pantoprazole from Schedule 4 to Schedule 3 when in oral preparations containing 20 mg or less of pantoprazole for the relief of heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), in packs containing not more than 14 days' supply. This decision was based on the available efficacy and safety data which supported a Schedule 3 entry.
In no particular order of importance, here they are: I swallow colostrum capsules every morning, I drink raw animal milk such as camel milk and goat milk in moderation, and I use the equivalent of around 30 grams of grass-fed whey protein each day in a smoothie (if you’re vegan or if whey protein doesn’t agree with your stomach, you can combine digestive enzymes with a vegan protein such as brown rice protein, pea protein or hemp protein for an effect similar to whey protein).
Manipulation of somatostatin tone also affects the GH response to GHSs. When hexarelin was given to subjects in combination with somatostatin, the amount of GH released was significantly reduced. When arginine, a postulated inhibitor of somatostatin, was administered to older adults, a group proposed to have increased somatostatin tone, GH levels following the administration of GHRP-6 increased significantly, to levels seen in younger subjects.
Furthermore, the most potent profibrogenic growth factors: Tgfb1, Pdgfb, and Ctgf also appeared significantly underexpressed in the GHRP-6-treated wounds (all ) (Figure 4). In line with this, we observed a significant reduction in the expression levels of Col1a1 and Col3a1 (Figure 4, both ). Concomitantly, we addressed the attention to filamentous and contractile proteins associated with fibroblasts and other differentiated mesenchyme-derived cells. Acta2 appeared close to a significant reduction (), whereas Des, Vim, and Fn transcriptional expression appeared significantly reduced (all ), as compared to placebo-treated wounds.

RT-PCR experiments shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which GHRP-6 appeared to modulate the fibrotic response. Among the genes studied (Table 1), GHRP-6 proved to significantly reduce TGFB1 and CTGF () expression, with no effect on PDGFB gene expression. An unexpected finding was that MMP3 appeared significantly reduced in the GHRP-6-treated wounds (). Most meaningfully is that PPARG expression became significantly elevated with GHRP-6 treatment (), as compared to placebo-treated wounds (Figure 7).

* Post script note: The expression "too restrictive to dental practitioners in the exercise of their professional practice" is a comment on the scope of the SUSMP to place controls on the activities of professional practitioners. The location of use of a chemical substance, whether by a registered practitioner in-clinic or by an individual consumer at home, is not intended to be controlled through the SUSMP. Limitations on the location of use would be applied through the policies of professional practice boards (i.e. the Dental Board of Australia) or other relevant regulatory authorities (including the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission).


But for maintenance of adequate and natural IGF-1 and growth hormone, and to achieve that sweet spot of not becoming to pro-growth while also not becoming a weak, muscle-less noodle, that sweet spot of producing adequate insulin without producing too much, and that sweet spot of increasing cellular repair without letting cellular division get “out of control”, I have indeed been implementing three specific strategies: my IGF-1 “trilogy”.
Used for muscle building, weight loss and anti-aging purposes, this is a very powerful peptide for promoting growth hormone release. GHRP-6 also helps in fighting inflammation and boosting recovery. Some professional bodybuilders are believed to use it together with steroids for greater potency. The peptide not only stimulates the pituitary to produce growth hormone, but also suppresses somatostatin which could impede release.
In 1999, seven adult patients with GH deficiency and LV failure received hexarelin administrations. The GH response to hexarelin was negligible in these patients. Moreover, hexarelin administration increased their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) without changing catecholamine levels, mean blood pressure (MBP), or cardiac output. For the first time, the acute administration of hexarelin proved to induce a positive inotropic effect in humans, which is GH independent and mediated by specific myocardial receptors for a GH secretagogue peptide.29 A subsequent study involving hexarelin administration to normal adults, severe GH-deficient patients (N = 7), and patients with severe ischemic DCM (N = 12) confirmed that the acute administration of hexarelin exerts a GH-independent positive inotropic effect likely mediated by specific GHRP myocardial receptors.30 This pioneering group subsequently evaluated the cardiac performances of the acute hexarelin administration (2.0 µg/kg, i.v.) in patients undergoing bypass surgery in comparison to patients given GH-releasing hormone, recombinant human GH, or placebo. The study concluded that the acute administration of hexarelin improved cardiac performance without any relevant variation in systemic vascular resistance and induced a reduction of wedge pressure and, significantly, that these cardiotropic effects were not shown by the other concurrent interventions.31
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