These peptides are inhibitors of a protein called myostatin. Myostatin is secreted by muscle cells and acts to essentially block the development of new muscle fibers and, thus, the development of lean muscle mass. In fact, individuals who have mutations in the gene coding for this protein have significantly more muscle mass and enhanced strength. The administration of follastatin peptides can generate enhanced muscle mass and strength, and has been found especially useful in patients suffering from muscle-wasting diseases or who have difficulty gaining muscle.
Growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP) 2 is a type of peptide therapeutic that mimics the effects of ghrelin, the “hunger hormone”. Ghrelin is a hormone that helps regulate appetite as well as energy distribution and rate of use, or metabolism. In the 1980’s, ghrelin was discovered to be the body’s natural ligand (or binding molecule) of the GHRP receptor in the anterior pituitary. This was a significant discovery, as it highlighted the role of ghrelin in hGH secretion and growth regulation. Modern biotechnology has used this knowledge to develop peptides that can be administered to mimic ghrelin’s hGH stimulation, but in a more targeted fashion. GHRP 2 is one such peptide, stimulating hGH secretion by 7-15 times, increasing appetite and meal initiation, while also decreasing fat mass and cholesterol. GHRP 2 is ideal for patients who are hypercatabolic, due to critical illness, cancer, AIDS, etc. It should be noted that GHRP 2 can also increase levels of prolactin, aldosterone, and cortisol.
Statistical analyses were carried out using GraphPad Prism 6 for Windows, version 6.01. For clinical response, histomorphometric parameters, and gene expression data, normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) and variance homogeneity (Brown-Forsythe) tests were performed. Once normality was demonstrated, differences between GHRP-6-treated and placebo-treated animals were determined using two-tailed unpaired Student’s -test. For non-Gaussian distributed data, Mann-Whitney U test was performed. For analyzing closure kinetics of rat wounds, two-way ANOVA was performed, followed by Sidak’s multiple comparisons test. In all cases, values of were considered statistically significant. The values shown represent mean ± SD (error bars).
It’s a man… it’s a plane… it’s a man eating a cactus! Not all heroes wear capes. To a superhero, secrecy is their most important power. Everyone from Bruce Wayne to Peter Parker can tell you this. Though, no matter how much you try to hide it, sometimes your character starts to slip out. Normal life can be hard; a friendly dinner can cause cravings for cactus, while running out of gas can turn into a truck-pulling contest. Not all heroes wear capes and most can’t help but save the world… one drumroll at a time. Credit: Various via Storyful
The search strategy was based on the PubMed/MEDLINE electronic databases including original research and review articles. The search was progressively date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. The search terms were as follows: growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), GHRP, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), CD36, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac stunning, heart failure, cytoprotection, and cardioprotection.
Additionally and not less relevant, GHRP-6 appears as an excellent partner to combine with other molecules (ie, epidermal growth factor [EGF]) because their exclusive actions seem to achieve a kind of synergism, useful to target the multiples nodes of complex pathophysiological processes, and thus to enhance tissue repair processes.56 Garcia del Barco and coworkers in our group have opened unprecedented avenues, by combining GHRP-6 and EGF as a therapeutic approach to ameliorate the damages of multiple sclerosis,57 peripheral axonal pathology,58 and brain ischemia in animal models.59,60 They have demonstrated that in all these experimental substrates the combined action of GHRP-6 and EGF is associated with a better outcome in both clinical and pathological fields.
It should be noted right off the bat that GHRP-6 doses are often normally (and ideally) combined with doses of a GHRH analogue, such as Mod GRF 1-29 (CJC-1295 without DAC) due to the synergistic effects and compatibility between the two, as previously mentioned in this profile. With that being said, the proper GHRP-6 doses do not change whether or not it is utilized with a GHRH. If an effective GHRP-6 dose is 100mcg, for example, then 100mcg of GHRP-6 should be administered whether the user is utilizing it alone or with Mod GRF 1-29. The term/phrase “saturation dose” or “saturation doses” can be heard a lot when peptides are discussed. A saturation dose is defined as a dose that will completely (or near completely) saturate the peptide’s target receptors. In GHRP-6’s case, this means the Ghrelin receptors located on the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.
The original GRF (1-29) has a half-life of about 30 minutes. Half-life means the time within which half of the hormone administered will be destroyed within the body. This short half-life is due to the fact that the compound is highly unstable and breaks down soon. To increase its stability and to make it last longer, it was modified by adding 4 amino acids in its structure. This gave it the name Modified GRF (1-29) or Mod GRF 1-29. It was originally invented by DatBtrue. The portion of the molecule that actually stimulates the growth hormone secretion is found in the chain of 29 amino acids, so it is named GRF (1-29). This chemical also produces slow-wave sleep.
Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) (developmental code name SKF-110679), also known as growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide, is one of several synthetic met-enkephalin analogues that include unnatural D-amino acids, were developed for their growth hormone-releasing activity and are called growth hormone secretagogues. They lack opioid activity but are potent stimulators of growth hormone (GH) release. These secretagogues are distinct from growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in that they share no sequence relation and derive their function through activation of a completely different receptor. This receptor was originally called the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), but due to subsequent discoveries, the hormone ghrelin is now considered the receptor's natural endogenous ligand, and it has been renamed as the ghrelin receptor. Therefore, these GHSR agonists act as synthetic ghrelin mimetics.